Tag Archives: collaboratively

What are the factors that ensure you achieve good governance in a shared services context?

Image courtesy of renjith krishnan at FreeDigitalPhotos.net
Image courtesy of renjith krishnan at FreeDigitalPhotos.net

When you are developing shared services, a collaboration or a partnership one of the questions that will be asked is what impact or influence will I, or my organisation, have on whatever is created? It is not always said out loud, but it is one of the main concerns of anyone moving into a new way of working – the worry that control will be lost – and it can have a major impact on whether the project is a success or not if it is not dealt with effectively. The way in which a project is governed through the development and in the final implementation phase is a significant factor in this, which is why knowing what good governance looks like is so important.

I will use the word collaboration throughout this post to refer to all types of joint working.

The first part of ensuring good governance is to ensure that there are clear messages from the very beginning of the process about how the collaboration will be managed – including how the final governance format will be decided, who will be involved and then how the transition from the existing structures to the new one will be managed.

But this is getting ahead of the subject of this post – which is about what good governance  looks like – as it is important to define this as early as possible to help to allay the fears that can stop people making positive contributions to the success of the collaboration. I will be sharing the experiences from other projects to help you decide what good governance will look like in the context of the collaboration you are working on.

Definitions of good governance

The Audit Commission, in their report on work being done by Doncaster Council in 2010, say:

Good governance is about running things properly. It is the means by which a public authority shows it is making decisions for the good of the people of the area, in a fair, equitable and open way … Without good governance councils will struggle to improve services when they perform poorly. 

This is equally true of collaborations in other sectors. The Cambridge & North Dumfries Community Foundation report Building Successful Collaborations  (which is a guide to collaboration among non-profit agencies and between non-profit agencies and businesses written by  Carolyn Parkinson in Summer 2006) uses a definition of collaboration which includes the importance of a jointly developed structure (or governance model) as:

a mutually beneficial and well-defined relationship entered into by two or more organizations to achieve common goals. The relationship includes a commitment to mutual relationships and goals; a jointly developed structure and shared responsibility; mutual authority and accountability for success; and sharing of resources and rewards.

Good governance in a collaborative context includes the rules and processes which inform effective collective decision-making. The focus should be on collective decision-making done by groups of individuals or organisations rather than one individual making a decision that affects everyone.

In order to ensure the establishment of a good governance structure a range of factors need to be in place, both in the development and implementation phases, and in the final structure that is  established.

1. Common aims

It is important to clearly identify the common problems, aims and issues. This then allows each of the collaborators to apply the appropriate resources from their respective areas of expertise and discipline.  Problems need to be clearly identified so that as wide a range of possible solutions can be developed using the perspectives of all participating groups. It is also important to be very clear about what is not to be included in the collaboration. The benefit is that the collaborators working together are very likely to create solutions they would not have gained working by themselves by focussing on agreed work strands based on the common aims.

It is important to ensure that the words used in describing these common aims are understood by everyone, as misunderstandings in the language used can have a detrimental effect on the trust each partner feels about the final collaboration and the process they are going through. This is best done by developing and agreeing a glossary for the project at the beginning – which is regularly reviewed and added to as each new phase of the project is developed.

2. Power

The location of power has a major impact on the amount of synergy and transformation that can be achieved. In my experience it is may not be the fact that one partner has more power than the others that causes issues – it is the perception of different levels of power and influence that is just as much of a problem. This can lead to partners competing with each other rather than collaborating.

It is important to recognise that all partners have power within a shared services project – one partner might have the power of money, but all partners have the power to exit the process. Knowledge and experience are as valuable as a financial contribution.

3. Trust

Although trust within a collaboration is important – it is also important to ensure that there are not such high levels of trust that there are no challenges when difficult issues are being dealt with. This can lead to complacency and the setting of easy goals which do not achieve the greatest potential benefits.

Trust requires a number of behaviours by partners which include attention being paid to ethics; transparency; accountability; responsiveness and fairness.

Poor communication is a major factor in reducing trust within collaborations. It is particularly important to establish an agreed glossary as each partner will have their own interpretation for many of the terms that will be used to describe the process and the final governance structure. Misunderstandings in the language used will have a detrimental effect on the trust each partner feels about the final collaboration and the process they are going through.

4. Membership structures

The balance of power is closely linked to the membership structures – there is always a balancing act between these two factors. One small change in either area can have a negative effect on the whole project.

The forms of membership  structures chosen for the governance of the development and implementation phases, and for the final entity follow on directly from how the positions in relation to power are handled. One potential way to help to manage the power relationship is for each partner to have equal voting rights, another is for each partner to contribute equally (or proportionately) to the core staff managing the project. There will be other ways it can be handled – but the key factor is that each partner must feel that they are recognised for their contribution to the collaboration if it is going to be successful.

5. Leadership

Effective leadership is required from the initiation of a collaboration to the establishment of the final entity. It must be visible and active at all levels of involvement with the process. This will ensure that the leader of the collaboration project is not undermined by contributors who are actually hindering a project rather than helping it to develop with the collusion of other managers within their organisations.

There needs to be careful handling of the introduction of the initial concept to those who will be involved, especially by the project sponsor and the members of the project board. The tone that they set from the start will help to manage the concerns of those involved in the collaboration project, whether directly or indirectly, as they will feel threatened and defensive because it will have a significant effect on their future working lives. Good communication is key to this, as it is to other factors which contribute to successful governance.

The leader of the collaboration project will need to have a number of skills ranging from nurturing to being strong and forceful to ensure that outcomes are beneficial to the whole collaboration and the majority of its members are achieved.

 

I hope that this brief summary of the factors that influence whether a collaboration project has good governance or not has been helpful. What have your experiences in the governance elements of a project been? I would also be interested to hear about other definitions of good governance that you have found.

How can informal networks support change managers?

In my previous post I covered the importance of effective communication for a successful change management programme . There is, however,  a significant issue which is often not considered when developing an effective communication plan – the importance of informal networks in the communication map.

How often have you heard people leading a project complaining about the rumour network and the misinformation that is becoming the believed facts about the project and what is happening (or not happening). Rather than complaining about them it is better to harness the informal networks to spread the right information about the programme and use the main influencers within these networks as key parts of the change process.

The key element of an informal network is the social capital it gives to the people who are a part of it – this can be shown by the formula below:

Human assets = human capital (education, skills, competencies) + social capital (influence, innovation, collaboration)

Image courtesy of renjith krishnan at FreeDigitalPhotos.net
Image courtesy of renjith krishnan at FreeDigitalPhotos.net

 

The main success factor of any change programme – or effective leadership and management in general is keeping staff engaged, focused and involved so that they are able to continue achieving the results and outcomes you require to keep you business or service working effectiveley. This is why collaboration and connecting are critical success factors, and one of the best ways to do this is to use the existing social capital channels.

A communication plan normally focussed on passing information up and down the rigid, formal structure of the organisation.

BUT

Successful change and effective management and leadership only happens when managers connect with key influencers at all levels in the organisation, and most of these individuals are not in the management hierarchy so another way of linking with them needs to be found.  This goes hand in hand with a collaborative leadership style.

Social capital is hidden, flexible and currently unmeasured but it has a major impact on how staff react to what is happening to them. It will be working whatever you do, so it is far better to harness the energy it includes and use it to get information out, and feedback back from as many staff as possible.

Image courtesy of renjith krishnan at FreeDigitalPhotos.net
Image courtesy of renjith krishnan at FreeDigitalPhotos.net

There are a range of different networks within an organisation which are all based on trust:

  • Work
  • Innovation
  • Expertise
  • Learning
  • Decision making
  • Social
  • Strategy
  • Career advice

Networks will include key people who can be pulse takers, hubs or gatekeepers. The people in these roles are well-regarded and have a lot of influence. It raises the question about whether new leaders should be appointed by looking at their social networks and influence and the ability to connect well and not just on qualifications and experience.

It is important to search for the real change agents who are change positive (or open-minded) and who are strongly influential. These people tend to be in the middle if the organisation. They can influence around 25 people, so if you work with them then you can reach 2,500 people and win their hearts and minds for the change that is happening.

The networkers will be natural communicators so they can help you with the communication programme influencing what is communication and how it is communicated to make it more relevant and not just management speak.

I have been inspired to write this post after attending a presentation on Changing the Change Game by Peter Westbrook of Informal Networks.

How do you ensure you have a successful shared services project?

The decision to investigate the potential of developing shared services can come from a number of different drivers. At the current time the most likely driver is managing reducing budgets. However there is still the potential that effective shared services can improve and extend the range of services currently available through working smarter.

Even if shared services could be a good option for your service or business it is not a good idea to rush into developing a the idea without first looking at other options such as:

  1. making the current service delivery methods as lean as possible
  2. other potential solutions including outsourcing or insourcing

Only after this should Shared Services be looked at as a potential option and a project team developed. A project board should also be established which includes decision makers from each of the organisations involved who all believe in its potential and speak with a single voice. The first role of this team and board is to establish the feasibility and potential of the project. The end of this phase of the project comes with a  signing off of an agreed option by the key decision makers in all of the organisations, or a joint decision not to proceed.

The project team requires a leader who has the right skills and attitude to manage a range of different contributors and stakeholders – their egos, worries, concerns and enthusiasm. Someone with a Shared Service Architect post-graduate qualification has the right tool box to help them manage such a project, but they also need to have tenacity, the ability to act collaboratively and systematically and a passion for the desired outcome for the project they are managing. The project team must include people who are able to contribute effectively to achieving the required outcomes. This includes having the right skill sets, but also sufficient time and the right attitude to developing something innovative and different. There should be a core team who drive the project under the leadership of the project leader and sponsor, but with the ability to call in others with specific skills as and when they are required.

All shared service projects should be set up with a project sponsor of sufficient influence across all of the participating organisations to be able to ensure that the right people are actively involved in developing the project to keep it on track, on plan and to budget. They need to have this influence to tackle instances of staff working to make sure the project is not successful or not contributing effectively.

It is always going to be difficult to get the staff involved in the project to be positive about the potential of the new shared service when it is going to affect their future working life and will potentially mean there are fewer jobs available too. It is important, though, to involve all of the staff in the affected services in the project as soon as possible. At the very least they should be given regular information and updates on what is happening. The best way to get them involved, though, is involving them in mapping and designing how services could work in the future. In my experience it is amazing the range of good ideas that come from staff at all levels in an organisation. Only involving staff at a senior level could mean that some really innovative ideas never surface or, if they are suggested, they don’t get to the people who are in the project team. It is also vital to get the unions involved as early as possible to ensure that the staff are supported, and that issues and concerns can be raised and dealt with at as early a stage as possible.

The options to be included in the new shared service must be developed with the full support of the key decision makers – the board or council members – depending on what kind of organisations are involved in the project. They need to be closely involved in the creation of the vision for the new shared service, the outcomes it is expected to achieve and also in deciding clearly what will and will not be included. The new entity that they are working towards should be noticeably different to anything that currently exists if it is to be effective, not just a clone of one service with bits of the others added onto it. That does not mean that a shared service has to be completely separated from its originating organisations as it can continue to be embedded in a range of ways within these organisations. In fact the people using the services will often not realise that the way the services are managed has changed if this element is managed effectively (other than, hopefully, noticing that they have improved).

The main focus of the shared service project needs to be on the benefits that will accrue from the shared service and what will be maintained and improved on if the shared service option is developed. In the current tightening financial situation maintaining services to their current level in-house is not going to be a viable option. Shared services, like outsourcing or insourcing, will be the only way of keeping the key services going in a professional and effective way.